The Achilles tendon, which connects the
calf muscles to the heel bone, can withstand significant pressure from physical activities. Achilles tendinitis is estimated to account for approximately 11 percent of all running injuries, as the
Achilles tendon provides the momentum to push off to walk or run. Achilles tendinitis, also called Achilles tendinopathy, results from overuse, injury or disease of the Achilles tendon, which causes
the area to become inflamed. There are two types of Achilles tendinitis: Non-insertional Achilles Tendinitis - Fibers that are located in the middle portion of the tendon began to develop small tears
that cause swelling and thickening. This type of tendinitis is usually found in younger people who are very active. Insertional Achilles Tendinitis - Develops where the tendon attaches to the heel
bone in the lower part of the heel. Extra bone growth also called bone spurs form because of this tendinitis and can affect patients at any time, even if they are not active.
The causes of Achilles tendonitis all appear to be related to excessive stress being transmitted through the tendon. Weak calf muscles, poor ankle range of motion, and excessive pronation have all
been connected with the development of Achilles problems.The upshot is that all of these factors, plus training volume and so on, result in damage to the tendon. Much like a bungee cord is made up of
tiny strands of rubber aligned together, tendons are comprised of small fiber-like proteins called collagen. Pain in the Achilles tendon is a result of damage to the collagen. Because of this,
treatment options should start with ways to address this.
People with achilles tendinitis experience mild aching on the back of the leg close to the heel after increased activity. Stiffness in the back of the ankle when you first wake up in the morning,
which subsides after mild activity. In some cases, the area may have swelling, thickening or be warm to the touch. Tenderness to touch along the tendon in the back of the ankle. Pain when the tendon
is stretched (i.e. when you lift your foot/toes up).
Physicians usually pinch your Achilles tendon with their fingers to test for swelling and pain. If the tendon itself is inflamed, your physician may be able to feel warmth and swelling around the
tissue, or, in chronic cases, lumps of scar tissue. You will probably be asked to walk around the exam room so your physician can examine your stride. To check for complete rupture of the tendon,
your physician may perform the Thompson test. Your physician squeezes your calf; if your Achilles is not torn, the foot will point downward. If your Achilles is torn, the foot will remain in the same
position. Should your physician require a closer look, these imaging tests may be performed. X-rays taken from different angles may be used to rule out other problems, such as ankle fractures. MRI
(magnetic resonance imaging) uses magnetic waves to create pictures of your ankle that let physicians more clearly look at the tendons surrounding your ankle joint.
In order to treat the symptoms, antiflogistics or other anti-inflammatory therapy are often used. However these forms of therapy usually cannot prevent the injury to live on. Nevertheless patients
will always have to be encouraged to execute less burdening activities, so that the burden on the tendon decreases as well. Complete immobilisation should however be avoided, since it can cause
atrophy. Passive rehabilitation, Mobilisations can be used for dorsiflexion limitation of the talocrural joint and varus- or valgus limitation of the subtalar joint. Deep cross frictions (15 min).
It?s effectiveness is not scientifically proven and gives limited results. Recently, the use of Extracorporal Shock Wave Therapy was proven. Besides that, the application of ice can cause a short
decrease in pain and in swelling. Even though cryotherapy 2, 5 was not studied very thoroughly, recent research has shown that for injuries of soft tissue, applications of ice through a wet towel for
ten minutes are the most effective measures. Active rehabilitation, An active exercise program mostly includes eccentric exercises. This can be explained by the fact that eccentric muscle training
will lengthen the muscle fibres, which stimulates the collagen production. This form of therapy appears successful for mid-portion tendinosis, but has less effect with insertion tendinopathy. The
sensation of pain sets the beginning burdening of the patient and the progression of the exercises.
Around 1 in 4 people who have persisting pain due to Achilles tendinopathy has surgery to treat the condition. Most people have a good result from surgery and their pain is relieved. Surgery involves
either of the following, removing nodules or adhesions (parts of the fibres of the tendon that have stuck together) that have developed within the damaged tendon. Making a lengthways cut in the
tendon to help to stimulate and encourage tendon healing. Complications from surgery are not common but, if they do occur, can include problems with wound healing.
Warm up slowly by running at least one minute per mile slower than your usual pace for the first mile. Running backwards during your first mile is also a very effective way to warm up the Achilles,
because doing so produces a gentle eccentric load that acts to strengthen the tendon. Runners should also avoid making sudden changes in mileage, and they should be particularly careful when wearing
racing flats, as these shoes produce very rapid rates of pronation that increase the risk of Achilles tendon injury. If you have a tendency to be stiff, spend extra time stretching. If you?re overly
flexible, perform eccentric load exercises preventively. Lastly, it is always important to control biomechanical alignment issues, either with proper running shoes and if necessary, stock or custom